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Bluetooth---伊始掌握Android 蓝牙( Bluetooth® )四.

2019-05-03 21:17栏目:亚州城ca88手机版
TAG:

LINKS

[1].Cannot connect to BLE device on Raspberry Pi
[2].Invalid file descriptor gatttool of bluez 5.32
[3].Get Started with Bluetooth Low Energy on Linux
[4].Reverse Engineering a Bluetooth Low Energy Light Bulb
[5].Doing Bluetooth Low Energy on Linux
[6].Tutorial: BLE Pairing the Raspberry Pi 3 Model B with Hexiwear

ca88手机版登录网址 1

@beautifulzzzz
智能硬件、物联网,热爱技术,关注产品
博客:http://blog.beautifulzzzz.com
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Daydream Performance HUD

提示:不是1体的Android设备都提供了Bluetooth( Bluetooth® )成效。

Connecting to a GATT Server

连接GATT服务器

The first step in interacting with a BLE device is connecting to it— more specifically, connecting to the GATT server on the device. To connect to a GATT server on a BLE device, you use the connectGatt() method. This method takes three parameters: a Context object, autoConnect (boolean indicating whether to automatically connect to the BLE device as soon as it becomes available), and a reference to a BluetoothGattCallback:
与BLE设备的相互的首先步是连接受它-更现实的说,连接在这些BLE设备上的GATT服务器。为了连接上在那几个BLE设备上的GATT服务器,你能够使用connectGatt()方法。那个方法有多个参数:四个上下文对象,是或不是自动三番五次(三个布尔值,评释只要这些BLE设备是足以博得的,是还是不是自动的接连上它),一个指向BluetoothGattCallback的引用。

mBluetoothGatt = device.connectGatt(this, false, mGattCallback);

This connects to the GATT server hosted by the BLE device, and returns a BluetoothGatt instance, which you can then use to conduct GATT client operations. The caller (the Android app) is the GATT client. The BluetoothGattCallback is used to deliver results to the client, such as connection status, as well as any further GATT client operations.
那会连接受由BLE设备管理的GATT服务器,并回到2个蓝牙伍.0( Bluetooth® )Gatt实例,然后您可以接纳它来进展GATT客户端操作。调用者(Android app)是GATT客户端。蓝牙( Bluetooth® )( Bluetooth® )GattCallback用来传送结果给客户端,举个例子连接情状,以及别的进一步的GATT客户端操作。

In this example, the BLE app provides an activity (DeviceControlActivity) to connect, display data, and display GATT services and characteristics supported by the device. Based on user input, this activity communicates with a Service called BluetoothLeService, which interacts with the BLE device via the Android BLE API:
本条例子中,这些BLE应用提供三个移动(DeviceControlActivity)用于连接装置,显示由器械提供的多少,GATT服务和特性。基于用户输入,那些运动与2个名称为蓝牙LeService的劳动通讯,该服务通过Android BLE API与BLE设备实行交互:

// A service that interacts with the BLE device via the Android BLE API.
public class BluetoothLeService extends Service {
    private final static String TAG = BluetoothLeService.class.getSimpleName();

    private BluetoothManager mBluetoothManager;
    private BluetoothAdapter mBluetoothAdapter;
    private String mBluetoothDeviceAddress;
    private BluetoothGatt mBluetoothGatt;
    private int mConnectionState = STATE_DISCONNECTED;

    private static final int STATE_DISCONNECTED = 0;
    private static final int STATE_CONNECTING = 1;
    private static final int STATE_CONNECTED = 2;

    public final static String ACTION_GATT_CONNECTED =
            "com.example.bluetooth.le.ACTION_GATT_CONNECTED";
    public final static String ACTION_GATT_DISCONNECTED =
            "com.example.bluetooth.le.ACTION_GATT_DISCONNECTED";
    public final static String ACTION_GATT_SERVICES_DISCOVERED =
            "com.example.bluetooth.le.ACTION_GATT_SERVICES_DISCOVERED";
    public final static String ACTION_DATA_AVAILABLE =
            "com.example.bluetooth.le.ACTION_DATA_AVAILABLE";
    public final static String EXTRA_DATA =
            "com.example.bluetooth.le.EXTRA_DATA";

    public final static UUID UUID_HEART_RATE_MEASUREMENT =
            UUID.fromString(SampleGattAttributes.HEART_RATE_MEASUREMENT);

    // Various callback methods defined by the BLE API.
    private final BluetoothGattCallback mGattCallback =
            new BluetoothGattCallback() {
        @Override
        public void onConnectionStateChange(BluetoothGatt gatt, int status,
                int newState) {
            String intentAction;
            if (newState == BluetoothProfile.STATE_CONNECTED) {
                intentAction = ACTION_GATT_CONNECTED;
                mConnectionState = STATE_CONNECTED;
                broadcastUpdate(intentAction);
                Log.i(TAG, "Connected to GATT server.");
                Log.i(TAG, "Attempting to start service discovery:"  
                        mBluetoothGatt.discoverServices());

            } else if (newState == BluetoothProfile.STATE_DISCONNECTED) {
                intentAction = ACTION_GATT_DISCONNECTED;
                mConnectionState = STATE_DISCONNECTED;
                Log.i(TAG, "Disconnected from GATT server.");
                broadcastUpdate(intentAction);
            }
        }

        @Override
        // New services discovered
        public void onServicesDiscovered(BluetoothGatt gatt, int status) {
            if (status == BluetoothGatt.GATT_SUCCESS) {
                broadcastUpdate(ACTION_GATT_SERVICES_DISCOVERED);
            } else {
                Log.w(TAG, "onServicesDiscovered received: "   status);
            }
        }

        @Override
        // Result of a characteristic read operation
        public void onCharacteristicRead(BluetoothGatt gatt,
                BluetoothGattCharacteristic characteristic,
                int status) {
            if (status == BluetoothGatt.GATT_SUCCESS) {
                broadcastUpdate(ACTION_DATA_AVAILABLE, characteristic);
            }
        }
     ...
    };
...
}

When a particular callback is triggered, it calls the appropriate broadcastUpdate() helper method and passes it an action. Note that the data parsing in this section is performed in accordance with the Bluetooth Heart Rate Measurement profile specifications:
当特定的回调被触发时,它调用相应的broadcastUpdate()支持方法并传递一个动作。请留心,本节中的数据解析是基于Bluetooth心率衡量配置文件标准实践的:

private void broadcastUpdate(final String action) {
    final Intent intent = new Intent(action);
    sendBroadcast(intent);
}

private void broadcastUpdate(final String action,
                             final BluetoothGattCharacteristic characteristic) {
    final Intent intent = new Intent(action);

    // This is special handling for the Heart Rate Measurement profile. Data
    // parsing is carried out as per profile specifications.
    if (UUID_HEART_RATE_MEASUREMENT.equals(characteristic.getUuid())) {
        int flag = characteristic.getProperties();
        int format = -1;
        if ((flag & 0x01) != 0) {
            format = BluetoothGattCharacteristic.FORMAT_UINT16;
            Log.d(TAG, "Heart rate format UINT16.");
        } else {
            format = BluetoothGattCharacteristic.FORMAT_UINT8;
            Log.d(TAG, "Heart rate format UINT8.");
        }
        final int heartRate = characteristic.getIntValue(format, 1);
        Log.d(TAG, String.format("Received heart rate: %d", heartRate));
        intent.putExtra(EXTRA_DATA, String.valueOf(heartRate));
    } else {
        // For all other profiles, writes the data formatted in HEX.
        final byte[] data = characteristic.getValue();
        if (data != null && data.length > 0) {
            final StringBuilder stringBuilder = new StringBuilder(data.length);
            for(byte byteChar : data)
                stringBuilder.append(String.format("X ", byteChar));
            intent.putExtra(EXTRA_DATA, new String(data)   "n"  
                    stringBuilder.toString());
        }
    }
    sendBroadcast(intent);
}

Back in DeviceControlActivity, these events are handled by a BroadcastReceiver:
回到DeviceControlActivity,这一个事件都被一个布罗兹castReceiver接收处理:

// Handles various events fired by the Service.
// ACTION_GATT_CONNECTED: connected to a GATT server.
// ACTION_GATT_DISCONNECTED: disconnected from a GATT server.
// ACTION_GATT_SERVICES_DISCOVERED: discovered GATT services.
// ACTION_DATA_AVAILABLE: received data from the device. This can be a
// result of read or notification operations.
private final BroadcastReceiver mGattUpdateReceiver = new BroadcastReceiver() {
    @Override
    public void onReceive(Context context, Intent intent) {
        final String action = intent.getAction();
        if (BluetoothLeService.ACTION_GATT_CONNECTED.equals(action)) {
            mConnected = true;
            updateConnectionState(R.string.connected);
            invalidateOptionsMenu();
        } else if (BluetoothLeService.ACTION_GATT_DISCONNECTED.equals(action)) {
            mConnected = false;
            updateConnectionState(R.string.disconnected);
            invalidateOptionsMenu();
            clearUI();
        } else if (BluetoothLeService.
                ACTION_GATT_SERVICES_DISCOVERED.equals(action)) {
            // Show all the supported services and characteristics on the
            // user interface.
            displayGattServices(mBluetoothLeService.getSupportedGattServices());
        } else if (BluetoothLeService.ACTION_DATA_AVAILABLE.equals(action)) {
            displayData(intent.getStringExtra(BluetoothLeService.EXTRA_DATA));
        }
    }
};

三、bluetoothctl——NB的新工具

一声令下行进入bluetoothctl操作遇到([#6](https://mcuoneclipse.com/2016/12/19/tutorial-ble-pairing-the-raspberry-pi-3-model-b-with-hexiwear/))

bluetoothctl

本身在表哥大上用lightblue模拟1个BLE设备ty_prod,之后对其service进行修改,调用scan on进行检索如故老的,
聊起底开掘要先用remove移除以前的设施,之后再scan就能够油但是生[NEW] Device 72:3B:E1:81:4E:4F ty_prodca88手机版登录网址,设备
注: 用lightblue模拟的配备的MAC不是确定地点的
注: 我发掘在lightblue中不管怎么模拟BLE设备,1旦被连上寻觅到的service都以IPone的

[bluetooth]# devices
Device 28:ED:6A:A0:26:B7 ty_prod
Device 58:71:33:00:00:24 Bluetooth Keyboard
Device 00:1A:7D:DA:71:0A SHEN-PC
Device 94:87:E0:B3:AC:6F Mi Phone
[bluetooth]# remove 28:ED:6A:A0:26:B7 
...
[bluetooth]# scan on
Discovery started
[NEW] Device 72:3B:E1:81:4E:4F ty_prod
[bluetooth]# scan off
...
Discovery stopped
[bluetooth]# connect 72:3B:E1:81:4E:4F
Attempting to connect to 72:3B:E1:81:4E:4F
[CHG] Device 72:3B:E1:81:4E:4F Connected: yes
Connection successful
[ty_prod]

差不多就用三星手提式有线电话机自带的劳务做测试了~

[ty_prod]# info
Device 28:ED:6A:A0:26:B7 (public)
    Name: tuya_mdev_test
    Alias: tuya_mdev_test
    Appearance: 0x0040
    Icon: phone
    Paired: yes
    Trusted: no
    Blocked: no
    Connected: yes
    LegacyPairing: no
    UUID: Fax                       (00001111-0000-1000-8000-00805f9b34fb)
    UUID: Generic Access Profile    (00001800-0000-1000-8000-00805f9b34fb)
    UUID: Generic Attribute Profile (00001801-0000-1000-8000-00805f9b34fb)
    UUID: Current Time Service      (00001805-0000-1000-8000-00805f9b34fb)
    UUID: Device Information        (0000180a-0000-1000-8000-00805f9b34fb)
    UUID: Battery Service           (0000180f-0000-1000-8000-00805f9b34fb)
    UUID: Vendor specific           (7905f431-b5ce-4e99-a40f-4b1e122d00d0)
    UUID: Vendor specific           (89d3502b-0f36-433a-8ef4-c502ad55f8dc)
    UUID: Vendor specific           (9fa480e0-4967-4542-9390-d343dc5d04ae)
    UUID: Vendor specific           (d0611e78-bbb4-4591-a5f8-487910ae4366)
[CHG] Device 28:ED:6A:A0:26:B7 ServicesResolved: no
[CHG] Device 28:ED:6A:A0:26:B7 Connected: no

咱俩用Current Time Service,列出全数attributes操作如下:

[tuya_mdev_test]# menu gatt
[tuya_mdev_test]# list-attributes 28:ED:6A:A0:26:B7
...
Primary Service
    /org/bluez/hci0/dev_47_B1_26_C1_81_18/service0041
    00001805-0000-1000-8000-00805f9b34fb
    Current Time Service
Characteristic
    /org/bluez/hci0/dev_47_B1_26_C1_81_18/service0041/char0045
    00002a0f-0000-1000-8000-00805f9b34fb
    Local Time Information
Characteristic
    /org/bluez/hci0/dev_47_B1_26_C1_81_18/service0041/char0042
    00002a2b-0000-1000-8000-00805f9b34fb
    Current Time
Descriptor
    /org/bluez/hci0/dev_47_B1_26_C1_81_18/service0041/char0042/desc0044
    00002902-0000-1000-8000-00805f9b34fb
    Client Characteristic Configuration
...

上面Current Time Service相应的服务如下图:

ca88手机版登录网址 2

大家挑选Current Time实行操作UUID:0x2A二B

[ty_prod]# select-attribute /org/bluez/hci0/dev_47_B1_26_C1_81_18/service0041/char0042
[tuya_mdev_test:/service0041/char0042]# read
Attempting to read /org/bluez/hci0/dev_47_B1_26_C1_81_18/service0041/char0042
[CHG] Attribute /org/bluez/hci0/dev_47_B1_26_C1_81_18/service0041/char0042 Value:
  e2 07 09 05 01 24 11 03 f1 02                    .....$....      
  e2 07 09 05 01 24 11 03 f1 02                    .....$.... 
[tuya_mdev_test:/service0041/char0042]# attribute-info
Characteristic - Current Time
    UUID: 00002a2b-0000-1000-8000-00805f9b34fb
    Service: /org/bluez/hci0/dev_47_B1_26_C1_81_18/service0041
    Value:
  e2 07 09 05 01 2e 01 03 f5 02                    ..........      
    Notifying: yes
    Flags: read
    Flags: notify

读出结果大概意思应该是:2018-9/5-1:36:17 周三

读取一下0x180A的Device Information:

[tuya_mdev_test:/service0006/char0007]# select-attribute /org/bluez/hci0/dev_47_B1_26_C1_81_18/service0047/char004a
[tuya_mdev_test:/service0047/char004a]# attribute-info
Characteristic - Model Number String
    UUID: 00002a24-0000-1000-8000-00805f9b34fb
    Service: /org/bluez/hci0/dev_47_B1_26_C1_81_18/service0047
    Flags: read
[tuya_mdev_test:/service0047/char004a]# read
Attempting to read /org/bluez/hci0/dev_47_B1_26_C1_81_18/service0047/char004a
[CHG] Attribute /org/bluez/hci0/dev_47_B1_26_C1_81_18/service0047/char004a Value:
  69 50 68 6f 6e 65 36 2c 32                       iPhone6,2       
  69 50 68 6f 6e 65 36 2c 32                       iPhone6,2    

当然写、使能notify也相当粗略,看help就可以。最终断开连接、并退出!!!

[tuya_mdev_test:/service0047/char004a]# disconnect 28:ED:6A:A0:26:B7
Attempting to disconnect from 28:ED:6A:A0:26:B7
[CHG] Device 28:ED:6A:A0:26:B7 ServicesResolved: no
Successful disconnected
[CHG] Device 28:ED:6A:A0:26:B7 Connected: no
[bluetooth]# quit

ca88手机版登录网址 3

Maximizing BLE Throughput on iOS and Android

To perform Bluetooth communication using these APIs, an application must declare the BLUETOOTH permission. Some additional functionality, such as requesting device discovery, also requires the BLUETOOTH_ADMIN permission.

接收GATT通知

It's common for BLE apps to ask to be notified when a particular characteristic changes on the device. This snippet shows how to set a notification for a characteristic, using the setCharacteristicNotification() method:
当设备上3个一定的特点发生变动时,BLE应用去须要被打招呼很广阔。那段代码显示了什么通过接纳setCharacteristicNotification()方法,去为2个风味设置1个布告:

private BluetoothGatt mBluetoothGatt;
BluetoothGattCharacteristic characteristic;
boolean enabled;
...
mBluetoothGatt.setCharacteristicNotification(characteristic, enabled);
...
BluetoothGattDescriptor descriptor = characteristic.getDescriptor(
        UUID.fromString(SampleGattAttributes.CLIENT_CHARACTERISTIC_CONFIG));
descriptor.setValue(BluetoothGattDescriptor.ENABLE_NOTIFICATION_VALUE);
mBluetoothGatt.writeDescriptor(descriptor);

Once notifications are enabled for a characteristic, an onCharacteristicChanged() callback is triggered if the characteristic changes on the remote device:
只要1本性情被使能布告,假若远程设备上的那性情子产生了转移,贰个onCharacteristicChanged()回调被触发。

@Override
// Characteristic notification
public void onCharacteristicChanged(BluetoothGatt gatt,
        BluetoothGattCharacteristic characteristic) {
    broadcastUpdate(ACTION_DATA_AVAILABLE, characteristic);
}

星期三, 05. 九月 2018 02:03上午 - beautifulzzzz

Unity优化技能

关于许多任何的卓绝Bluetooth音信。能够看蓝牙伍.0( Bluetooth® )指南。有关诸多其余的低耗电Bluetooth的新闻,能够看BLE指南。

Receiving GATT Notifications

1、前言

上一篇讲了什么样编写翻译安装XlueZ-5,本篇主要在于玩BlueZ,用命令行去操作BLE设备:

  • [BlueZ] 1、Download install and use the BlueZ and hcitool on PI 3B

ca88手机版登录网址 4

Conversion Quaternion to Euler

贰.为配对的蓝牙( Bluetooth® )设备查询本地蓝牙( Bluetooth® )适配器

剧中人物和职责

Here are the roles and responsibilities that apply when an Android device interacts with a BLE device:
此地是Android设备与BLE设备交互时适用的角色和职务:

  • Central vs. peripheral. This applies to the BLE connection itself. The device in the central role scans, looking for advertisement, and the device in the peripheral role makes the advertisement.
    ca88网页版会员登录,宗旨和外设。这适用于BLE连接自身。中心设备剧中人物扫描,寻觅广告,同时外剧中人物设备创制广告。

  • GATT server vs. GATT client. This determines how two devices talk to each other once they've established the connection.
    GATT服务器和GATT客户端。那决定了七个设施创设连接之后如何通讯。

To understand the distinction, imagine that you have an Android phone and an activity tracker that is a BLE device. The phone supports the central role; the activity tracker supports the peripheral role (to establish a BLE connection you need one of each—two things that only support peripheral couldn't talk to each other, nor could two things that only support central).
为了知道那几个特点,假诺你持有一个Android手提式有线电话机和二个BLE活动追踪器设备。手提式有线电话机担负中心剧中人物;活动追踪器担任外设角色(为了创造BLE连接,你须求一些的如此的装置。只帮助外设剧中人物的多少个设备无法互相通讯,同样,仅扶助主旨剧中人物的七个器具也无法相互通讯)

Once the phone and the activity tracker have established a connection, they start transferring GATT metadata to one another. Depending on the kind of data they transfer, one or the other might act as the server. For example, if the activity tracker wants to report sensor data to the phone, it might make sense for the activity tracker to act as the server. If the activity tracker wants to receive updates from the phone, then it might make sense for the phone to act as the server.
手提式有线电话机和活动追踪器1旦创建了连年,他们就先河相互传输GATT元数据。依赖于他们传输的数码,在那之中的1个开头充当服务器。举个例子:假如移动跟踪器希望将传感器数据报告给手提式有线电话机,那么活动追踪器只怕会负责服务器。如何运动追踪器想要从手提式无线话机接到更新,那么手提式有线电话机只怕会担当服务器。

In the example used in this document, the Android app (running on an Android device) is the GATT client. The app gets data from the GATT server, which is a BLE heart rate monitor that supports the Heart Rate Profile. But you could alternatively design your Android app to play the GATT server role. See BluetoothGattServer for more information.
其一文书档案中央银行使的事例中,Android 应用软件(运营在Android设备上)是GATT客户端。App从3个GATT服务器中获取数据,GATT服务器是叁个提供心跳配置文件的BLE心跳检查评定器。不过你也能够安插你的安卓App充当GATT服务器的角色。有关详细音讯,请查看蓝牙( Bluetooth® )GattServer。

ca88手机版登录网址 5

Touch

android.bluttooth

Closing the Client App

二、gatttool —— 老工具趟坑

刚起初跟着 Get Started with Bluetooth Low Energy on Linux 操作gatttool,发现坑太多(主因是工具老了):

采用sudo gatttool -b 4D:69:98:0E:91:5E -I去连接
察觉会报错:Error: connect error: Connection refused (111)
最后参考LINK-1一开采必要加random选项([#1](https://stackoverflow.com/questions/32947807/cannot-connect-to-ble-device-on-raspberry-pi))

➜  ~  sudo gatttool -b 4D:69:98:0E:91:5E -I
[4D:69:98:0E:91:5E][LE]> connect
Attempting to connect to 4D:69:98:0E:91:5E
Error: connect error: Connection refused (111)
[4D:69:98:0E:91:5E][LE]> exit
➜  ~  sudo gatttool  -t random  -b 4D:69:98:0E:91:5E -I
[4D:69:98:0E:91:5E][LE]> connect
Attempting to connect to 4D:69:98:0E:91:5E
Connection successful
[4D:69:98:0E:91:5E][LE]> 
(gatttool:3104): GLib-WARNING **: Invalid file descriptor.

过一次会十S自行断开,网络说这几个工具老了,不提议用了([#2](https://www.spinics.net/lists/linux-bluetooth/msg67617.html)):

There are new tools to use with GATT, bluetoothctl/bluetoothd is the preferred since with that you have GAP, etc, 
but if want to use a stand alone tool then I suggest you use btgatt-client.

ca88手机版登录网址 6

dotPeek

Interfaces


BluetoothAdapter.LeScanCallback Callback interface used to deliver LE scan results. 
BluetoothProfile Public APIs for the Bluetooth Profiles. 
BluetoothProfile.ServiceListener An interface for notifying BluetoothProfile IPC clients when they have been connected or disconnected to the service. 

Setting Up BLE

设置BLE
Before your application can communicate over BLE, you need to verify that BLE is supported on the device, and if so, ensure that it is enabled. Note that this check is only necessary if <uses-feature.../> is set to false.
在你利用能够透过BLE通讯在此之前,你须求表达那几个装置是不是帮助BLE,假设可以,确认BLE是使能的。必要留意的是唯有当<uses-feature.../>设置为false这些是检查需要的

If BLE is not supported, then you should gracefully disable any BLE features. If BLE is supported, but disabled, then you can request that the user enable Bluetooth without leaving your application. This setup is accomplished in two steps, using the BluetoothAdapter.
若是BLE不被帮忙,则你必要优雅的除能全数的BLE性情。借使BLE被扶助,可是被除能了,则你需求请求用户使能蓝牙5.0而不离开的利用。该装置使用蓝牙( Bluetooth® )Adapter在八个步骤中做到。

  1. Get the BluetoothAdapter
    获取BluetoothAdapter
    The BluetoothAdapter is required for any and all Bluetooth activity. The BluetoothAdapter represents the device's own Bluetooth adapter (the Bluetooth radio). There's one Bluetooth adapter for the entire system, and your application can interact with it using this object. The snippet below shows how to get the adapter. Note that this approach uses getSystemService() to return an instance of BluetoothManager, which is then used to get the adapter. Android 4.3 (API Level 18) introduces BluetoothManager:
    抱有的BluetoothActivity中都亟需蓝牙5.0适配器。蓝牙( Bluetooth® )适配器表示了这么些设备自带的蓝牙( Bluetooth® )适配器(蓝牙有线电)。整个连串有二个蓝牙伍.0适配器,你的施用能够通过这些目的和它交互。下边包车型大巴代码片段显示了哪些获取那几个适配器。供给小心的是其1格局运用getSystemService()去获取蓝牙伍.0( Bluetooth® )Manager的三个实例,然后用于获取适配器。Android 4.三(API Level 1八)介绍了蓝牙伍.0( Bluetooth® )Manager。

    private BluetoothAdapter mBluetoothAdapter;
    ...
    // Initializes Bluetooth adapter.
    final BluetoothManager bluetoothManager =
            (BluetoothManager) getSystemService(Context.BLUETOOTH_SERVICE);
    mBluetoothAdapter = bluetoothManager.getAdapter();
    
  2. Enable Bluetooth
    使能蓝牙( Bluetooth® )
    Next, you need to ensure that Bluetooth is enabled. Call isEnabled() to check whether Bluetooth is currently enabled. If this method returns false, then Bluetooth is disabled. The following snippet checks whether Bluetooth is enabled. If it isn't, the snippet displays an error prompting the user to go to Settings to enable Bluetooth:
    接下去,你须求认同蓝牙5.0是使能的。调用isEnable()去检查是或不是蓝牙( Bluetooth® )脚下是不是使能。假诺这几个主意再次回到false,则蓝牙( Bluetooth® )是除能的。接下来的代码片段检查是不是蓝牙( Bluetooth® )是是能的。假设未有使能,代码片段会来得一个用户去设置开启蓝牙( Bluetooth® )的不当提醒。

    // Ensures Bluetooth is available on the device and it is enabled. If not,
    // displays a dialog requesting user permission to enable Bluetooth.
    if (mBluetoothAdapter == null || !mBluetoothAdapter.isEnabled()) {
        Intent enableBtIntent = new Intent(BluetoothAdapter.ACTION_REQUEST_ENABLE);
        startActivityForResult(enableBtIntent, REQUEST_ENABLE_BT);
    }
    

Note: The REQUEST_ENABLE_BT constant passed to startActivityForResult(android.content.Intent, int) is a locally-defined integer (which must be greater than 0) that the system passes back to you in your onActivityResult(int, int, android.content.Intent) implementation as the requestCode parameter.

注意:传送给startActivityForResult()的常量REQUEST_ENABLE_BT是3个地点定义的整数(必须大于0),这一个平头系统会兑现为requestCode参数,在您的onActivityResult()方法中,回传给你。

依照骁龙 VGL450 SDK的V君越图形优化

7.作为GATTclient或GATT服务端

Key Terms And Concepts

HID-over-GATT

一.对此其余的蓝牙( Bluetooth® )设备的扫视(包罗BLE设备)

一言九鼎术语和定义

Here is a summary of key BLE terms and concepts:
以下是关于BLE的机要术语和定义的摘要

  • Generic Attribute Profile (GATT)—The GATT profile is a general specification for sending and receiving short pieces of data known as "attributes" over a BLE link. All current Low Energy application profiles are based on GATT.
    通用属性配置文件(GATT)--通用属性配置文件是1个经过BLE链接发送或接受短小一些数据或被称为“属性”的通用标准。当前抱有的低功耗应用配置文件都根据GATT。

    • The Bluetooth SIG defines many profiles for Low Energy devices. A profile is a specification for how a device works in a particular application. Note that a device can implement more than one profile. For example, a device could contain a heart rate monitor and a battery level detector.
    • 蓝牙( Bluetooth® )手艺联盟为低功耗设备定义了不少直属文件。配置文件是二个在特定应用中道具怎么着行事的科班。请留心,2个装置得以完毕多个布局文件。比方:贰个配备得以分包二个心跳检查实验器和七个电量检验器
  • Attribute Protocol (ATT)—GATT is built on top of the Attribute Protocol (ATT). This is also referred to as GATT/ATT. ATT is optimized to run on BLE devices. To this end, it uses as few bytes as possible. Each attribute is uniquely identified by a Universally Unique Identifier (UUID), which is a standardized 128-bit format for a string ID used to uniquely identify information. The attributes transported by ATT are formatted as characteristics and services.
    品质协议(ATT)——GATT创设在性质量管理协会议(ATT)之上。那也被称作GATT/ATT。ATT经过优化,可在BLE设备上运维。为此,它利用尽也许少的字节。各个属性由通用唯一标识符(UUID)唯一标记,该标志符是用于唯壹标记音讯的规范128-bit格式的字符串ID。由ATT传输的性质被格式化为特征和劳务

  • Characteristic—A characteristic contains a single value and 0-n descriptors that describe the characteristic's value. A characteristic can be thought of as a type, analogous to a class.
    性格——贰个特点包括贰个值和0至多个描述特征的描述符。三个脾性能够被以为是1种档案的次序,类似于三个类。

  • Descriptor—Descriptors are defined attributes that describe a characteristic value. For example, a descriptor might specify a human-readable description, an acceptable range for a characteristic's value, or a unit of measure that is specific to a characteristic's value.
    叙述符——描述符是描述特征值的概念属性。举个例子:描述符可能能够钦赐1个人类可读的讲述,特征值的可承受范围,或特征值特有的单位

  • Service—A service is a collection of characteristics. For example, you could have a service called "Heart Rate Monitor" that includes characteristics such as "heart rate measurement." You can find a list of existing GATT-based profiles and services on bluetooth.org.
    服务——服务是二本特性的联谊。比如:你能够应用3个叫做“心跳检查测试器”的服务,在那之中包罗“心跳衡量”等特点。你可以在bluetooth.org上找到二个一度存在的依照GATT的计划文件和劳动的列表

 

接口:

BluetoothAdapter.LeScanCallback :用来提供LE扫描结果的回调接口

BluetoothProfile:Bluetooth Profiles的公共APIs

BluetoothProfile.ServiceListener:蓝牙( Bluetooth® )( Bluetooth® )Profile IPC client与service的接连和断开时的三个公告接口

-

Finding BLE Devices

寻找BLE设备

To find BLE devices, you use the startLeScan() method. This method takes a BluetoothAdapter.LeScanCallback as a parameter. You must implement this callback, because that is how scan results are returned. Because scanning is battery-intensive, you should observe the following guidelines:
要物色BLE设备,你能够使用startLeScan()方法。那几个法子包罗2个蓝牙( Bluetooth® )艾达pter.LeScanCallback作为参数。你不能不要贯彻这几个回调,因为那是什么样回到扫描结果的(因为扫描结果是由此那么些再次回到的)。因为扫描是电池密集型的,你需求遵守以下的规则:

  • As soon as you find the desired device, stop scanning.
    比如你一找到了想要的设施,就告1段落扫描
  • Never scan on a loop, and set a time limit on your scan. A device that was previously available may have moved out of range, and continuing to scan drains the battery.
    切勿在循环里扫描,且要设置七个扫描时限。 2个事先能够收获的设施也许已经移出了限定,持续围观消功耗池。

The following snippet shows how to start and stop a scan:
上边包车型地铁代码片段展示了什么开首和终止扫描:

/**
 * Activity for scanning and displaying available BLE devices.
 */
public class DeviceScanActivity extends ListActivity {

    private BluetoothAdapter mBluetoothAdapter;
    private boolean mScanning;
    private Handler mHandler;

    // Stops scanning after 10 seconds.
    private static final long SCAN_PERIOD = 10000;
    ...
    private void scanLeDevice(final boolean enable) {
        if (enable) {
            // Stops scanning after a pre-defined scan period.
            mHandler.postDelayed(new Runnable() {
                @Override
                public void run() {
                    mScanning = false;
                    mBluetoothAdapter.stopLeScan(mLeScanCallback);
                }
            }, SCAN_PERIOD);

            mScanning = true;
            mBluetoothAdapter.startLeScan(mLeScanCallback);
        } else {
            mScanning = false;
            mBluetoothAdapter.stopLeScan(mLeScanCallback);
        }
        ...
    }
...
}

If you want to scan for only specific types of peripherals, you can instead call startLeScan(UUID[], BluetoothAdapter.LeScanCallback), providing an array of UUID objects that specify the GATT services your app supports.
假定您想扫描特定项目标外设,你能够轮换调用startLeScan(UUID[], BluetoothAdapter.LeScanCallback),提供3个一定的您的app协理的GATT服务UUID设备数组。

Here is an implementation of the BluetoothAdapter.LeScanCallback, which is the interface used to deliver BLE scan results:
此处有贰个蓝牙5.0Adapter.LeScanCallback的兑现,它是二个接口,用来传输BLE扫描结果:

private LeDeviceListAdapter mLeDeviceListAdapter;
...
// Device scan callback.
private BluetoothAdapter.LeScanCallback mLeScanCallback =
        new BluetoothAdapter.LeScanCallback() {
    @Override
    public void onLeScan(final BluetoothDevice device, int rssi,
            byte[] scanRecord) {
        runOnUiThread(new Runnable() {
           @Override
           public void run() {
               mLeDeviceListAdapter.addDevice(device);
               mLeDeviceListAdapter.notifyDataSetChanged();
           }
       });
   }
};

Note: You can only scan for Bluetooth LE devices or scan for Classic Bluetooth devices, as described in Bluetooth. You cannot scan for both Bluetooth LE and classic devices at the same time.

留意:你可以扫描低功耗蓝牙五.0设备或卓绝蓝牙伍.0设备,如Bluetooth所述。你不能够同时扫视低耗电Bluetooth设备和经文蓝牙伍.0设备。

Introduction to Bluetooth Low Energy

3.建立RFCOMM channels/sockets.

Roles and Responsibilities

Daydream

For more information about Classic Bluetooth, see the Bluetooth guide. For more information about Bluetooth Low Energy, see the Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) guide.

闭馆客户端app

Once your app has finished using a BLE device, it should call close() so the system can release resources appropriately:
假诺您的应用程序达成使用BLE设备,它应该调用close(),以便系统能够准确释放能源:

public void close() {
    if (mBluetoothGatt == null) {
        return;
    }
    mBluetoothGatt.close();
    mBluetoothGatt = null;
}

后记:本文翻译自google开采者网址。链接如下:
https://developer.android.google.cn/guide/topics/connectivity/bluetooth-le.html
应接转发,但请爱惜笔者工作,留下本文后记
作者:Jaesoon
邮箱:jayyuz@163.com
日期:2017-09-17

Daydream Controller手柄数据的解析

类:

BluetoothA2dp:那几个类提供调节BluetoothA二DP profile的公共APIs

BluetoothAdapter:代表当地设备的蓝牙5.0adapter.
BluetoothAssignedNumbers:Bluetooth分配号码

BluetoothClass:代表3个蓝牙( Bluetooth® )类。它形容叙述了设备的相似特征(characteristics)和力量(capabilities)

BluetoothClass.Device:定义全体器械类的常量

BluetoothClass.Device.Major:定义全体首要道具类的常量

BluetoothClass.Service:定义全体服务类的常量

BluetoothDevice:代表三个远程蓝牙( Bluetooth® )设备

=============================================================================================

BluetoothGatt:蓝牙GATT Profile的公共APIs

BluetoothGattCallback:那么些抽象类用于落到实处Bluetooth( Bluetooth® )Gatt回调

BluetoothGattCharacteristic:代表2个蓝牙( Bluetooth® )( Bluetooth® )GATT Characteristic.

                                              多个GATT Characteristic是用来组织三个GATT service,BluetoothGattService的骨干数据成分

BluetoothGattDescriptor:代表1个BluetoothGATT Descriptor.

                                           GATT Descriptor包括3个GATT characteristic,BluetoothGattCharacteristic的额外消息和属性.

Classes


BluetoothA2dp This class provides the public APIs to control the Bluetooth A2DP profile. 
BluetoothAdapter Represents the local device Bluetooth adapter. 
BluetoothAssignedNumbers Bluetooth Assigned Numbers. 
BluetoothClass Represents a Bluetooth class, which describes general characteristics and capabilities of a device. 
BluetoothClass.Device Defines all device class constants. 
BluetoothClass.Device.Major Defines all major device class constants. 
BluetoothClass.Service Defines all service class constants. 
BluetoothDevice Represents a remote Bluetooth device. 
BluetoothGatt Public API for the Bluetooth GATT Profile. 
BluetoothGattCallback This abstract class is used to implement BluetoothGatt callbacks. 
BluetoothGattCharacteristic Represents a Bluetooth GATT Characteristic

A GATT characteristic is a basic data element used to construct a GATT service,BluetoothGattService

BluetoothGattDescriptor Represents a Bluetooth GATT Descriptor

GATT Descriptors contain additional information and attributes of a GATT characteristic,BluetoothGattCharacteristic

BluetoothGattServer Public API for the Bluetooth GATT Profile server role. 
BluetoothGattServerCallback This abstract class is used to implement BluetoothGattServer callbacks. 
BluetoothGattService Represents a Bluetooth GATT Service

Gatt Service contains a collection of BluetoothGattCharacteristic, as well as referenced services. 

BluetoothHeadset Public API for controlling the Bluetooth Headset Service. 
BluetoothHealth Public API for Bluetooth Health Profile. 
BluetoothHealthAppConfiguration The Bluetooth Health Application Configuration that is used in conjunction with the BluetoothHealthclass. 
BluetoothHealthCallback This abstract class is used to implement BluetoothHealth callbacks. 
BluetoothManager High level manager used to obtain an instance of an BluetoothAdapter and to conduct overall Bluetooth Management. 
BluetoothServerSocket A listening Bluetooth socket. 
BluetoothSocket A connected or connecting Bluetooth socket. 

BluetoothGattServer:蓝牙( Bluetooth® )GATT Profileserver剧中人物的公共APIs.

BluetoothGattServerCallback:这些抽象类用于落到实处BluetoothGattServer回调.

BluetoothGattService:代表3个BluetoothGATT Service.

================================================================================

BluetoothHeadset:调控蓝牙五.0动铁耳机(Headset)服务的公共API.

BluetoothHealth:蓝牙Health Profile的公共API.

BluetoothHealthAppConfiguration:The Bluetooth Health Application Configuration(配置)用来与BluetoothHealth类结合.

BluetoothHealthCallback:用于得以落成BluetoothHealth回调的抽象类

BluetoothManager:用来获得BluetoothAdapter的实例的领导职员,进行宏观的蓝牙( Bluetooth® )管理

BluetoothServerSocket:一个监听Bluetooth的socket

BluetoothSocket:三个已接二连三或正在连接的蓝牙伍.0socket.

Reading BLE Attributes

读取BLE属性

Once your Android app has connected to a GATT server and discovered services, it can read and write attributes, where supported. For example, this snippet iterates through the server's services and characteristics and displays them in the UI:
万①您的Android应用连接到GATT服务器并开掘了服务,假使GATT服务器帮衬,它就足以读取和写入属性了。比方:这一片段代码遍历了那几个服务器的服务和特色,,并将其出示在UI中:

public class DeviceControlActivity extends Activity {
    ...
    // Demonstrates how to iterate through the supported GATT
    // Services/Characteristics.
    // In this sample, we populate the data structure that is bound to the
    // ExpandableListView on the UI.
    private void displayGattServices(List<BluetoothGattService> gattServices) {
        if (gattServices == null) return;
        String uuid = null;
        String unknownServiceString = getResources().
                getString(R.string.unknown_service);
        String unknownCharaString = getResources().
                getString(R.string.unknown_characteristic);
        ArrayList<HashMap<String, String>> gattServiceData =
                new ArrayList<HashMap<String, String>>();
        ArrayList<ArrayList<HashMap<String, String>>> gattCharacteristicData
                = new ArrayList<ArrayList<HashMap<String, String>>>();
        mGattCharacteristics =
                new ArrayList<ArrayList<BluetoothGattCharacteristic>>();

        // Loops through available GATT Services.
        for (BluetoothGattService gattService : gattServices) {
            HashMap<String, String> currentServiceData =
                    new HashMap<String, String>();
            uuid = gattService.getUuid().toString();
            currentServiceData.put(
                    LIST_NAME, SampleGattAttributes.
                            lookup(uuid, unknownServiceString));
            currentServiceData.put(LIST_UUID, uuid);
            gattServiceData.add(currentServiceData);

            ArrayList<HashMap<String, String>> gattCharacteristicGroupData =
                    new ArrayList<HashMap<String, String>>();
            List<BluetoothGattCharacteristic> gattCharacteristics =
                    gattService.getCharacteristics();
            ArrayList<BluetoothGattCharacteristic> charas =
                    new ArrayList<BluetoothGattCharacteristic>();
           // Loops through available Characteristics.
            for (BluetoothGattCharacteristic gattCharacteristic :
                    gattCharacteristics) {
                charas.add(gattCharacteristic);
                HashMap<String, String> currentCharaData =
                        new HashMap<String, String>();
                uuid = gattCharacteristic.getUuid().toString();
                currentCharaData.put(
                        LIST_NAME, SampleGattAttributes.lookup(uuid,
                                unknownCharaString));
                currentCharaData.put(LIST_UUID, uuid);
                gattCharacteristicGroupData.add(currentCharaData);
            }
            mGattCharacteristics.add(charas);
            gattCharacteristicData.add(gattCharacteristicGroupData);
         }
    ...
    }
...
}

Getting Started with Bluetooth Low Energy

Provides classes that manage Bluetooth functionality, such as scanning for devices, connecting with devices, and managing data transfer between devices. The Bluetooth API supports both "Classic Bluetooth" and Bluetooth Low Energy.

BLE 权限


In order to use Bluetooth features in your application, you must declare the Bluetooth permission BLUETOOTH. You need this permission to perform any Bluetooth communication, such as requesting a connection, accepting a connection, and transferring data.
为了在你的使用中应用蓝牙伍.0特色,你不能够不要表明蓝牙五.0权限 BLUETOOTH 。你要此权限技能实施其它蓝牙通讯,如:请求一个连连,接收二个连连,和传输数据。

If you want your app to initiate device discovery or manipulate Bluetooth settings, you must also declare the BLUETOOTH_ADMIN permission. Note: If you use the BLUETOOTH_ADMIN permission, then you must also have the BLUETOOTH permission.
举个例子您想要你的app运维设备发现或决定蓝牙5.0设置,你必须也要表达BLUETOOTH_ADMIN 权限。注意:假使您用了 BLUETOOTH_ADMIN 权限,则还必须有 BLUETOOTH 权限。

Declare the Bluetooth permission(s) in your application manifest file. For example:
宣称Bluetooth权限在你的应用manifest文件,举例:

<uses-permission android:name="android.permission.BLUETOOTH"/>
<uses-permission android:name="android.permission.BLUETOOTH_ADMIN"/>

If you want to declare that your app is available to BLE-capable devices only, include the following in your app's manifest:
假定你想要申明你的app仅帮助有BLE功效的装置,在您的app的manifest中填上如下内容:

<uses-feature android:name="android.hardware.bluetooth_le" android:required="true"/>
However, if you want to make your app available to devices that don't support BLE, you should still include this element in your app's manifest, but set required="false". Then at run-time you can determine BLE availability by using PackageManager.hasSystemFeature():
然后,假使您想要你的app能够被不协理BLE的器具得到,你照旧需求包罗那个成分在您的app的manifest文件中,可是,需求安装required为false。然后在你的代码运营时,你能够因而采取确认PackageManager.hasSystemFeature()方法来确认BLE是或不是可获得。

// Use this check to determine whether BLE is supported on the device. Then
// you can selectively disable BLE-related features.
if (!getPackageManager().hasSystemFeature(PackageManager.FEATURE_BLUETOOTH_LE)) {
    Toast.makeText(this, R.string.ble_not_supported, Toast.LENGTH_SHORT).show();
    finish();
}

Note: LE Beacons are often associated with location. In order to use BluetoothLeScanner without a filter, you must request the user's permission by declaring either the ACCESS_COARSE_LOCATION or ACCESS_FINE_LOCATION permission in your app's manifest file. Without these permissions, scans won't return any results.

小心:LE信标日常与地点相关联。
为了在并没有过滤器的气象下接纳蓝牙( Bluetooth® )LeScanner,您必须通过申明应用程序的清单文件中的ACCESS_COARSE_LOCATION或ACCESS_FINE_LOCATION权限来呼吁用户的权柄。

 

四.连连在其余装置上内定的sockets

Virtual Reality High Performance

IQS525-B000

The Bluetooth APIs let applications:

Bluetooth Core Specification

选取这几个APIs来停止蓝牙( Bluetooth® )之间的交换,一个应用程序必须注脚BLUETOOTH权限。对于部分异常的职能。如请求设备开掘,也非得BLUETOOTH_ADMIN权限。

Unity3d Quaternion

6.与BLE设备调换。比方类似传感器,心率监视器,强健体魄设备,等等

How Does Time Warping Work

蓝牙 APIs 能够使得应用具有上面成效:

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